Per aspera ad astra! -- Luigi Gussalli

"through hardships to the stars"

On April 26, 2022 Elon Musk tweeted "Per aspera ad astra!"

The Year 2023 is the 100th Anniversary of Gussalli's fist book about going to the Moon.

at beginning
"Per aspera ad astra (or, less commonly, ad astra per aspera) is a Latin phrase meaning "through hardships to the stars". The phrase is one of the many Latin sayings that use the expression ad astra, meaning "to the stars"."

under 'literature'
"Pioneer of astronautics, engineer Luigi Gussalli used the sentence at the beginning of his publications"

Wikipedia > Per aspera ad astra

"Luigi Gussalli (1885–1950), engineer and inventor, was a pioneer of motor cars. He turned to astronautics in the 1920s, corresponding with world leaders in this field, such as Oberth and Goddard and exchanging with them theories on interplanetary flight and its prospects. He developed a special double-reaction engine, wrote extensively on multi-stage rockets and published two books on space travel. The first one, in 1923, described a space flight to the Moon, the second one, written in 1946, is even more astonishing in its theme: “Interplanetary travels by means of solar radiations”."

Wikipedia > Luigi Gussalli


"In 1923, Gussalli wrote Si può già tentare un viaggio dalla terra alla luna? —Relazione di esperienze eseguite coi propulsori a doppia reazione3 (Is It Now Possible to Attempt a Voyage from the Earth to the Moon? -Results of Ex periments Conducted on Double-reaction Propulsion)." His First Book

"Quest—The History of Spaceflight Magazine (Spring 1995): pp. 30–34." References #3

History of Rocketry and Astronautics

"Luigi Gussalli, on the other hand, did not undertake military careers, he was an engineer with a marked propensity for invention and design from an early age.

Among his most interesting works, surely the visionary Is it possible to try a journey from the Earth to the Moon? , inside which one speculates on four-stage rockets, gravity generated by rotation of the capsule on itself, etc. (Gussalli 1923)

In 1941, he published Jet Thrusters for astronautics and in 1946 he released his latest book, The interplanetary travels by means of solar radiation ."

Per aspera ad astra. The debt of the astronautics towards the Italian genius
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Luigi Gussalli Biography
NASA - Luigi Gussalli — Italian Spaceflight Visionary
Carro d’assalto Gussalli - Assault Vehicle – 2 Prototypes
Quest Volume 19, Number 4, 2012
Italian Engineer, Luigi Gussalli

Motto of South African Air Force